Reasearch Study Shows Academic Improvement as a Result of Vision Performance Training
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VISUAL SKILLS AND READING ACHIEVEMENT OF COLLEGE ATHLETES
by: Frank Spaniol, Liette Ocker, Randy Bonnette, Martin Ward, and Jeff Paluseo
Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX. Human Performance Lab (8/1/2007)
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between visual skills and reading achievement
of college athletes.
METHODS: Fourteen (14) male college athletes (ages 18-23) from
the Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi baseball team were studied at the conclusion
of the 2007 fall baseball season. Each subject was assessed for visual skills utilizing the
VizualEdge Performance Trainer® (VEPT), a software program designed to evaluate and
train visual skills. Individual test scores were determined for eye alignment, depth
perception, convergence, divergence, visual recognition, visual memory, and visual
tracking. A composite VEPT score was also calculated for each subject. Reading
achievement was determined by the third edition of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test
(Level 10/12, Form L). The test consists of two parts: vocabulary and comprehension.
The vocabulary section includes forty-five objective questions while the comprehension
section includes forty-eight objective questions. Per test administration instructions, all
subjects were permitted twenty minutes to complete the vocabulary section and thirty-
five minutes to complete the comprehension section. Raw scores were recorded for each
section, while an extended scale score (ESS) was recorded for each subject.
Data analysis was performed on the test scores by utilizing a correlation matrix to
calculate correlation coefficients for the following variables: visual convergence, visual
divergence, visual recognition, visual tracking, reading vocabulary raw score, reading
comprehension raw score, composite raw score, and extended scale score. Statistical
analyses (p < .05) indicated high positive relationships between visual convergence and
reading vocabulary (r = .72) and visual divergence and reading vocabulary (r = .74).
Additional moderate positive relationships existed for visual convergence and ESS (r =
.62), visual divergence and ESS (r = .56), visual convergence and composite score (r =
.57), visual divergence and composite score (r = .61), and the comprehensive VEPT score
and ESS (r = .48).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that significant
positive relationships existed between visual convergence and reading vocabulary and
visual divergence and reading vocabulary. In addition, significant relationships existed
between convergence, divergence, VEPT, and composite scores and ESS.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study was funded by a grant from the Center for
Educational Development, Evaluation, and Research (CEDER) at Texas A&M